Basic Science Notes

Living Things [Plants And Animals]

CONTENT: 1. Examples of plants and animals

       2. Characteristics of plant and animals

       3. Uses/importance of plants and animals

       4. Food, Medicine, Shelter

       5. Economic Importance

Examples of plants and animals.

The living things can be divided into plants and animals. Toad, housefly, ostrich, fish are examples of animals. Maize plant, grass, yam, hibiscus are examples of plants.

The characteristics of living things are as follows: MR NIGERCLAD

  1. Movement: Movement is a change in position .Animals move from place to place. Plant only moves towards the light.
  2. Respiration :This is the release of energy as a result of breakdown of food  in the body
  3. Nutrition/Feeding: Food is a substance which when taken provides energy or materials for building the body. Plant and animals feed in order to get energy to carry out their daily activities and also to grow.
  4. Growth:  Growth is the increase in size as a result of formation of new cells and increase of the new cells .All living things grow as they become older.
  5. Irritability/Sensitivity: This is the ability to respond to change in the environment. All living things respond to changes in the environment.
  6. Reproduction: all living things can reproduce their own kind/species.
  7. Excretion: the removal of metabolic waste products from the body is called excretion
  8. Adaptation: This is the way living things get used to their various environments.
  9. Competition: This is the ability of living things to struggle for all the necessities of life in order to survive in their various environments. Plants and animals compete for food.

10. Life span/ Death: All living things must die because they have limited period of existence.

Sub-Topic 2: Uses/Importance of plants and animals.

Plants and animals can be used for the following purposes.

Uses of plants

1. Plants provides food such as vegetables, fruits, tuber, leaves etc for man and animals’

2. Provision of materials for shelter e. g timber for construction of houses.

3. Medicine: plants are used in the production of drug plant which is used as herb      in treating diseases.

4. Plant is used to beautify our environment.

5. Plant leaves serve as wind break and also use to control soil erosion

6. Plants remove carbon-dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and give out oxygen.

7. It serves as source of income to the people and the nation.

Uses of animals

1. Animals serve as food for man.

2. Some animals are used as beasts of burden e .g donkeys and camels

3. Some animals are used as means of transportation e. g horses and camels.

4. Animal such as dogs is used for security.

5 It also serves as source of income.


  1. Mention five examples of plant.
  2. What are the uses of plants and animals?
  3. List all the characteristics of plants and animals.

Reading Assignment:
Read basic science made easy by F.I. Kehinde pages 76-84.

Weekend assignment:

       1.  Mention names of five plants and five animals.

       2.  List four important uses of plants and animals to human beings.

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