Plasmolysis, Haemolysis, Turgidity and Flaccidity


Plasmolysis is defined as the shrinkage of the cytoplasmic lining from the cell wall or cell membrane when the cell is placed in a more concentrated solution. This can be observed when plant cell is placed in a more concentrated salt or sugar solution than that of the cell sap, water is lost by exosmosis. As a result of water loss the cell become flaccid.

When the plasmolysed cell is again placed in distilled water (hypotonic solution), water moves into the cell sap solution is in the vacuole increases in volume and distend towards the cytoplasm and cell wall. The shrinkage or red blood cell is crenation



Haemolysis is defined as inward movement of water uncontrollably into a cell when the cell is surrounded by hypotonic solution to the port of bursting in a process called endosmosis.

Haemolysis is the process by which red blood cells become split or burst as a result of excessive  intake of water called endosmosis.

Normally, the blood and red blood compuseles are isotonic, that is bod red blood cell and the plasma have the same osmotic concentration. Mammalian plasma and red blood cell have sodium chloride solution.

If for some reason, the concentration of salt in the plasma falls i.e become hypotonic water will enter the red blood cells by osmosis called endosmosis through the cell membrane continuous absorption of water into the cell will make the cells very turgid and eventually burst haemolysis will lead to anaemia which may cause death.

Condition that cause haemolysis

(i)Disease attack

(ii) abuse of use of drugs

(iii)Food poisoning, infection/epidermics industrial activities/pollution


is defined as the condition in which cells absorb plenty of water up to a point where the cell is fully stretched. At this point, the cell is said to be turgid. Turgidity occurs when a cell is place in hypotonic solution. Turgidity is useful to plant because it make them stand erect, give support, make them stand erect, give support to the stem, leaves, flower and guard cells


is defined as the condition in which plants lose water to their surroundings faster than they can absorb. When plants lose more water, it is said to be flaccid. Flaccidity normal occur when there is no water in the soil during drought. The situation may cause plant to wilt or even die if last for a very long tim

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