Intonation and stress are very important in spoken English. The meaning of an utterance is affected, not only by stress, but also by the variations in the pitch of a voice.
When one speaks the voice or pitch changes; becomes high or low depending on the meaning the speaker intends.
The sentence intonation patterns are
- Falling Tune: The falling tune is usually used in declarative sentences, commands, exclamations and wh-questions.
Joy works hard in school.
Emeka has given the book to her.
Keep the books on my table
Stand under the tree.
c. Wh – question
Why are your very late?
Who gave you the information?
What a good result!
How pretty she is!
- Rising Tune: The rising tune is used in
a. Polar Questions (questions which demand only ‘yes’ or ‘no’ as answer)
Is the wine sweet?
Will Monday be good for it?
Did you eat last night?
b. Utterances showing indifference
You can do what you want
I think that’s right.
c. Listing items.
One, two, three and four.
We need some rice, beans, fish and meat.
In enumeration, the final item in the list is usually said on a falling tune.
Although the falling and rising intonation patterns are the two basic pitch patterns, the two
Pitch movements can be combined in long sentences.
- Rise and fall pattern.
While the boys were working, the girls were playing.
When the rain comes, I‘ll plant my seed yams.
- Fall and rise pattern
The students are happy, aren’t they?
You can do it, can’t you?
Exercise 1, Question A, Page 99, Oral English for Schools and Colleges.
Topic: Argumentative Essay: “The Home Is Responsible for the Unruly Behaviour of Teenagers in the Society.”
An argumentative essay is one that requires you to present a subject with a view to persuading your reader to agree with your own point of view against another one. The essence of this type of essay is argument and its subject covers all forms of debate.
An argument may be developed to:
i. prove a point
ii. present a view point
iii. balance the two sides of an issue.
For examination purposes, it is important that the candidate should realize that all debates are argumentative essays but not all argumentative essays are debates. Debates are framed in such a way that the writer should know the topic to be discussed, the people that would be around and possibly where the debate is taking place.
On the other hand, there are topics that merely require your view point. In this type of essay, you should write out the topic, underline it and start writing your views without addressing anybody.
Example: Write an essay presenting your points for or against the topic, ‘Day student perform better than boarding students in examinations’.
The above is a good example of an ordinary argumentative essay. No audience is indicated and no greeting is necessary. All you need to do here is to write the topic and start your essay.
Write an essay on the topic.
‘The Home Is responsible for the Unruly Behaviour of Teenagers in the Society’.
Topic: Comprehension: Government
The passage is part of a speech delivered by President Babangida to introduce one of the country’s efforts at devising a constitution for civilian rule.
Babangida urged the citizens to arise to the task of taking the country to a greater height by searching for a new political order which would launch the country into a new Nigeria. But this new political order should not be an imitation of the foreign political models because the political history and culture of Nigeria are not in anyway the same with that of the foreign countries.
Questions, Page 36.
Topic: Summary: Party Systems.
The passage centres on the types of party systems. One party system of government has only one political party which forms the government of the country. The demerit of this party is that it tends to become too powerful since there is no other party to check it.
A two-party system of government has two major parties. One of the parties rules while the other watches and keeps in check the ruling party.
A multi-party system allows having as many parties as the electorate wishes. It is difficult for a party to emerge with an overall majority in an election.
Question, Page 39.
- Write at least five Latin expression used in English Language and explain their meanings.
- Define direct and indirect speech.
- Give two examples of direct speech.
- Give two examples of indirect speech.
- List three features each for direct and indirect.