The syllabus is evolved from the Senior Secondary School teaching syllabus and is intended to indicate the scope of the course for Physics examination.
It is structured with the conceptual approach. The broad concepts of matter, position, motion and time; energy; waves; fields; Atomic and Nuclear Physics, electronics are considered and each concept forms a part on which other sub-concepts are further based.
The aims of the syllabus are to enable candidates
- acquire proper understanding of the basic principles and applications of Physics;
- develop scientific skills and attitudes as pre-requisites for further scientific activities;
- recognize the usefulness, and limitations of scientific method to appreciate its applicability ion other disciplines and in every life;
- develop abilities, attitudes and skills that encourage efficient and safe practice;
- develop scientific attitudes such as accuracy, precision, objectivity, integrity, initiative and inventiveness.
The following activities appropriate to Physics will be tested:
- Acquisition of knowledge and understanding:
Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of
- Scientific phenomena, facts laws, definitions, concepts and theories;
- Scientific vocabulary, terminology and conventions (including symbols, quantities and units);
- The use of scientific apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety;
- Scientific quantities and their determinations;
- Scientific and technological applications with their social economic and environmental implications.
- Information Handling and Problem-solving
Candidates should be able, using visual, oral, aural and written (including symbolic, diagrammatic, graphical and numerical) information to
- locate select, organize and present information from a variety of sources including everyday experience;
- analyse and evaluate information and other data;
- use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences;
- present reasonable explanations for natural occurrences, patterns and relationships;
- make predictions from data.
- Experimental and Problem-Solving Techniques Candidates should be able to
- follow instructions;
- carry out experimental procedures using apparatus;
- make and record observations, measurements and estimates with due regard to precision, accuracy and units;
- interpret, evaluate and report on observations and experimental data;
- identify problems, plan and carry out investigations, including the selection of techniques, apparatus, measuring devices and materials;
- evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements;
- state and explain the necessary precautions taken in experiments to obtain accurate results.
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
There will be THREE papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1: Will consist of fifty multiple choice questions lasting 1¼ hours and carrying 50 marks.
PAPER 2: Will consist of two sections, Sections A and B lasting1½ hours and carrying 60 marks.
Section A – Will comprise seven short-structured questions. Candidates will be required to answer any five questions for a total of 15 marks. Section B – Will comprise five essay questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any three for 45 marks.
PAPER 3: Will be a practical test for school candidates or an alternative to practical work paper for private candidates. Each version of the paper will comprise three questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any two in 2¾ hours for 50 marks.
It is important that candidates are involved in practical activities in covering this syllabus. Candidates will be expected to answer questions on the topics set in the column headed ‘ TOPIC’. The ‘NOTES’ are intended to indicate the scope of the questions which will be set but they are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.
NOTE: Questions will be set in S.I. units. However, multiples or sub-multiples of the units may be used.
INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE & TIME
|1. Concepts of matter||Simple structure of matter should be discussed.|
|Three physics states of matter, namely solid,|
|liquid and gas should be treated. Evidence of|
|the particle nature of matter e.g. Brownian|
|motion experiment, Kinetic theory of matter.|
|Use of the theory to explain; states of matter|
|(solid, liquid and gas), pressure in a gas,|
|evaporation and boiling; cohesion, adhesion,|
|capillarity. Crystalline and amorphous|
|substances to be compared (Arrangement of|
|atoms in crystalline structure to be described e.g.|
|face centred, body centred.|
|2. Fundamental and derived quantities and||Length, mass, time, electric current luminous|
|units||intensity, thermodynamic temperature, amount|
|(a)||Fundamental quantities and units||of substance as examples of fundamental|
|quantities and m, kg, s, A, cd, K and mol as their|
|(b)||Derived quantities and units||Volume, density and speed as derived quantities|
|and m3, kgm-3 and ms-1 as their respective units.|
|3. Position, distance and displacement.|
|(a) Concept of position as a location of||Position of objects in space using the X,Y,Z|
|point-rectangular coordinates.||axes should be mentioned.|
|(b)||Measurement of distance|
|Use of string, metre rule, vernier calipers and|
- Concept of direction as a way of locating a point –bearing
- Distinction between distance and displacement.
micrometer screw gauge. Degree of accuracy should be noted. Metre (m) as unit of distance.
Use of compass and a protractor.
Graphical location and directions by axes to be stressed.
|4.||Mass and weight||Use of lever balance and chemical/beam balance|
|to measure mass and spring balance to measure|
|weight. Mention should be made of|
|Distinction between mass and weight||Kilogram (kg) as unit of mass and newton (N) as|
|unit of weight.|
|(a)||Concept of time as interval between||The use of heart-beat, sand-clock, ticker-timer,|
|physical events||pendulum and stopwatch/clock.|
|(b)||Measurement of time||Second(s) as unit of time.|
|6.||Fluid at rest|
|(a)||Volume, density and relative density||Experimental determination for solids and|
|(b)||Pressure in fluids||Concept and definition of pressure. Pascal’s|
|principle, application of principle to hydraulic|
|press and car brakes. Dependence of pressure|
|on the depth of a point below a liquid surface.|
|Atmospheric pressure. Simple barometer,|
|manometer, siphon, syringe and pump.|
|Determination of the relative density of liquids|
|with U-tube and Hare’s apparatus.|
|(c)||Equilibrium of bodies||Identification of the forces acting on a body|
|partially or completely immersed in a fluid.|
|(i)||Archimedes’ principle||Use of the principle to determine the relative|
|densities of solids and liquids.|
|(ii)||Law of flotation||Establishing the conditions for a body to float in|
|a fluid. Applications in hydrometer, balloons,|
|boats, ships, submarines etc.|
|(a)||Types of motion:||Only qualitative treatment is required.|
|Random, rectilinear, translational,||Illustration should be given for the various types of|
|Rotational, circular, orbital, spin,||motion.|
|(b)||Relative motion||Numerical problems on co-linear motion may be set.|
|(c)||Cause of motion||Force as cause of motion.|
- Types of force:
|(i)||Contact force||Push and pull|
|(ii) Non-contact force(field force)|
|These are field forces namely; electric and magnetic|
|attractions and repulsions; gravitational pull.|
|Frictional force between two stationary bodies|
|(e)||Solid friction||(static) and between two bodies in relative motion|
|(dynamic). Coefficients of limiting friction and their|
|determinations. Advantages of friction e.g. in|
|locomotion, friction belt, grindstone. Disadvantages|
|of friction e.g reduction of efficiency, wear and tear|
|of machines. Methods of reducing friction; e.g. use|
|of ball bearings, rollers, streamlining and lubrication.|
|Definition and effects. Simple explanation as|
|extension of friction in fluids. Fluid friction and its|
|(f) Viscosity (friction in fluids)||application in lubrication should be treated|
|qualitatively. Terminal velocity and its|
|Experiments with a string tied to a stone at one end|
|and whirled around should be carried out to|
|(g) Simple ideas of circular motion||(i) demonstrate motion in a|
- Speed and velocity
- Concept of speed as change of distance with time
- Concept of velocity as change of displacement with time
- Uniform/non-uniform speed/velocity
- Distance/displacement-time graph
- Rectilinear acceleration
- Concept of Acceleration/deceleration as increase/decrease in velocity with time.
- Uniform/non-uniform acceleration
- Velocity-time graph
- Equations of motion with constant acceleration;
Motion under gravity as a special case.
- show the difference between angular speed and velocity.
- Draw a diagram to illustrate centripetal force. Banking of roads in reducing sideways friction should be qualitatively discussed.
Metre per second (ms-1) as unit of speed/velocity.
Ticker-timer or similar devices should be used to determine speed/velocity. Definition of velocity as
- s ∆
Determination of instantaneous speed/velocity from distance/displacement-time graph and by calculation.
Unit of acceleration as ms-2
Ticker timer or similar devices should be used to determine acceleration. Definition of acceleration as
- v ∆t .
Determination of acceleration and displacement from velocity-time graph
Use of equations to solve numerical problems.
- Scalars and vectors
- Concept of scalars as physical quantities with magnitude and no direction
- Concept of vectors as physical quantities with both magnitude and direction.
- Vector representation
- Addition of vectors
- Resolution of vectors
- Resultant velocity using vector representation.
- Equilibrium of forces
- Principle of moments
- Conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces.
- Centre of gravity and stability
- Simple harmonic motion
- Illustration, explanation and definition of simple harmonic motion (S.H.M)
Mass, distance, speed and time as examples of scalars.
Weight, displacement, velocity and acceleration as examples of vectors.
Use of force board to determine the resultant of two forces.
Obtain the resultant of two velocities analytically and graphically.
Torque/Moment of force. Simple treatment of a couple, e.g. turning of water tap, corkscrew and steering wheel.)
Use of force board to determine resultant and equilibrant forces. Treatment should include resolution of forces into two perpendicular directions and composition of forces
Parallelogram of forces. Triangle of forces.
Should ne treated experimentally. Treatment should include stable, unstable and neutral equilibra.
Use of a loaded test-tube oscillating vertically in a liquid, simple pendulum, spiral spring and bifilar suspension to demonstrate simple harmonic motion.
- Speed and acceleration of S.H.M.
- Period, frequency and amplitude of a body executing S.H.M.
- Energy of S.H.M
- Forced vibration and resonance
- Newton’s laws of motion:
- First Law:
Inertia of rest and inertia of motion
(b) Second Law:
Force, acceleration, momentum and impulse
- Third Law: Action and reaction
Relate linear and angular speeds, linear and angular accelerations.
Experimental determination of ‘g’ with the simple pendulum and helical spring. The theory of the principles should be treated but derivation of the formula for ‘g’ is not required
Simple problems may be set on simple harmonic motion. Mathematical proof of simple harmonic motion in respect of spiral spring, bifilar suspension and loaded test-tube is not required.
Distinction between inertia mass and weight
Use of timing devices e.g. ticker-timer to determine the acceleration of a falling body and the relationship when the accelerating force is constant.
Linear momentum and its conservation.
Collision of elastic bodies in a straight line.
Applications: recoil of a gun, jet and rocket propulsions.
ENERGY: MECHANICAL AND HEAT
|(a)||Forms of energy||Examples of various forms of energy should be|
|mentioned e.g. mechanical (potential and kinetic),|
|heat chemical, electrical, light, sound, nuclear.|
|(b)||World energy resources||Renewable (e.g. solar, wind, tides, hydro, ocean|
|waves) and non-renewable (e.g. petroleum, coal,|
|nuclear, biomass) sources of energy should be|
|(c)||Conservation of energy.||Statement of the principle of conservation of energy|
|and its use in explaining energy transformations.|
|15. Work, Energy and Power|
|(a) Concept of work as a measure of||Unit of energy as the joule (J)|
|(b) Concept of energy as capability to||Unit of energy as the joule (J) while unit of electrical|
|do work||consumption is KWh.|
|Work done in lifting a body and by falling bodies|
|(c) Work done in a gravitational field.|
|Derivation of P.E and K.E are expected to be known.|
|Identification of types of energy possessed by a body|
|(d) Types of mechanical energy||under given conditions.|
|(i)||Potential energy (P.E.)|
|(ii)||Kinetic energy (K.E)||Verification of the principle.|
- Conservation of mechanical energy.
- Concept of power as time rate of doing work.
- Application of mechanical energy-machines.
Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle, gears.
- Heat Energy
- Temperature and its measurement
- Effects of heat on matter e.g
- Rise in temperature
- Change of phase state
- Change of resistance
- Thermal expansion – Linear, area and volume expansivities
Unit of power as the watt (W)
The force ratio (F.R), mechanical advantage (M.A), velocity ratio (V.R) and efficiency of each machine should be treated.
Identification of simple machines that make up a given complicated machine e.g. bicycle.
Effects of friction on Machines. Reduction of friction in machines.
Concept of temperature as degree of hotness or coldness of a body. Construction and graduation of a simple thermometer.
Properties of thermometric liquids. The following thermometer, should be treated:
Constant – volume gas thermometer, resistance thermometer, thermocouple, liquid-in-glass thermometer including maximum and minimum thermometer and clinical thermometer, pyrometer should be mentioned. Celsius and Absolute scales of temperature. Kelvin and degree Celsius as units of temperature.
Use of the Kinetic theory to explain effects of heat.
Mention should be made of the following effects:
Change of colour
Change in chemical properties
Qualitative and quantitative treatment Consequences and application of expansions. Expansion in buildings and bridges, bimetallic strips, thermostat, over-head cables causing sagging nd in railway lines causing buckling. Real and apparent expansion of liquids. Anomalous expansion of water.
- Heat transfer –
Condition, convention and radiation.
- The gas laws-Boyle’s law Charles’ law, pressure law and general gas law
- Measurement of heat energy:
- Concept of heat capacity
- Specific heat capacity.
- Latent heat
- Concept of latent heat
- Melting point and boiling Point
- Specific latent heat of fusion and of vaporization
Per Kelvin (K-1) as the unit of expansivity.
Use of the kinetic theory to explain the modes of heat transfer. Simple experimental illustrations. Treatment should include the explanation of land and sea breezes, ventilation and application s in cooling devices. The vacuum flask.
The laws should be verified using simple apparatus. Use of the kinetic theory to explain the laws. Simple problems may be set. Mention should be made of the operation of safety air bags in vehicles.
Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific heat capacities of solids and liquids. Land and sea breezes related to the specific heat capacity of water and land, Jkg-1 K-1 as unit of specific heat capacity.
Explanation and types of latent heat.
Determination of the melting point of solid and the boiling point of a liquid. Effects of impurities and pressure on melting and boiling points. Application in pressure cooker.
Use of the method of mixtures and the electrical method to determine the specific latent heats of fusion of ice and of vaporization of steam. Applications in refrigerators and air conditioners.
Jkg-1 as unit of specific latent heat
|(h)||Evaporation and boiling||Effect of temperature, humidity, surface area and|
|draught on evaporation to be discussed.|
|(i) Vapour and vapour pressure||Explanation of vapour and vapour pressure.|
|Demonstration of vapour pressure using simple|
|experiments. Saturated vapour pressure and its|
|relation to boiling.|
|Measurement of dew point and relative humidity.|
|(j)||Humidity, relative humidity and||Estimation of humidity of the atmosphere using wet|
|dew point||and dry-bulb hygrometer.|
|Formation of dew, fog and rain.|
|(k) Humidity and the weather|
|17. Production and propagation of waves|
|(a) Production and propagation of||Use of ropes and springs (slinky) to generate|
|mechanical waves||mechanical waves|
|(b) Pulsating system:||Use of ripple tank to show water waves and to|
|Energy transmitted with definite||demonstrate energy propagation by waves.|
|speed, frequency and wavelength.||Hertz(Hz) as unit of frequency.|
|(c)||Waveform||Description and graphical representation.|
|Amplitude, wave length, frequency and period.|
|Sound and light as wave phenomena.|
|V= f and T =||simple problems may be set.|
|connecting frequency (f),|
|wavelength( ), period (T) and|
|18. Types of waves||Examples to be given|
|(a)||Transverse and longitudinal|
|Equation y = A sin (wt±||) to be explained|
|(b)||Mathematical representation of|
|Questions on phase difference will not be set.|
|Ripple tank should be extensively used to|
|demonstrate these properties with plane and circular|
|19.||Properties of waves:||waves. Explanation of the properties.|
|Reflection, refraction, diffraction,|
|Interference, superposition of|
|progressive waves producing standing|
|20.||Light waves||Natural and artificial. Luminous and non-luminous|
|(a) Sources of light|
|(b) Rectilinear propagation of light||Formation of shadows and eclipse. Pinhole camera.|
|Simple numerical problems may be set.|
|(c) Reflection of light at plane surface:||Regular and irregular reflections. Verification of|
|plane mirror||laws of reflection. Formation of images.|
|Inclined plane mirrors. Rotation of mirrors.|
|Applications in periscope, sextant and kaleidoscope.|
|(d) Reflection of light at curved||Laws of reflection. Formation of images.|
|surfaces: concave and convex||Characteristics of images. Use of mirror formulae:|
|+||=||and magnification m =||to solve|
|(Derivation of formulae is not required)|
|Experimental determination of the focal length of|
|Applications in searchlight, parabolic and driving|
|mirrors, car headlamps etc.|
|(e) Refraction of light at plane surfaces:||Laws of refraction. Formation of images, real and|
|Apparent depths. Critical angle and total internal|
|rectangular glass prism (block) and|
|reflection. Lateral displacement and angle of|
|deviation. Use of minimum deviation equation:|
|(f) Refraction of light at curved||Sin||(A + Dm)|
|Converging and diverging lenses||(Derivation of the formula is not required)|
|Applications: periscope, prism binoculars, optical|
|fibres. The mirage.|
|Formation of images. Use of lens formulae|
|+||=||and magnification||tp solve numerical|
|(derivation of the formulae not required).|
|Experimental determination of the focal length of|
|converging lens. Power of lens in dioptres (D)|
|(g) Application of lenses in optical||Simple camera, the human eye, film projector,|
|instruments.||simple and compound microscopes, terrestrial and|
|astronomical telescopes. Angular magnification.|
|Prism binoculars. The structure and function of the|
|camera and the human eye should be compared.|
|Defects of the human eye and their corrections.|
|(h) Dispersion of white light by a||Production of pure spectrum of a white light.|
|triangular glass prism.||Recombination of the components of the spectrum.|
|Colours of objects. Mixing coloured lights.|
|21.||Electromagnetic waves:||Elementary description and uses of various types of|
|Types of radiation in electromagnetic||radiation: Radio, infrared, visible light, ultra-violet,|
|Spectrum||X-rays, gamma rays.|
|(a)||Sources of sound|
|(b)||Transmission of sound waves||Experiment to show that a material medium is|
|(c) Speed of sound in solid, liquid and||To be compared. Dependence of velocity of sound|
|air||on temperature and pressure to be considered.|
|(d) Echoes and reverberation||Use of echoes in mineral exploration, and|
|determination of ocean depth. Thunder and multiple|
|reflections in a large room as examples of|
|(e)||Noise and music||Pitch, loudness and quality.|
|(f)||Characteristics of sound|
|(g)||Vibration in strings||The use of sonometer to demonstrate the dependence|
|of frequency (f) on length (1), tension (T) and mass|
|per unit length (liner density) (m) of string should be|
|treated. Use of the formula:|
|In solving simple numerical problems.|
|Applications in stringed instruments: e.g. guitar,|
|piano, harp and violin.|
|(h)||Forced vibration||Use of resonance boxes and sonometer to illustrate|
|(i)||Resonance||Use of overtones to explain the quality of a musical|
|note. Applications in percussion instruments: e.g|
|(ii)||Harmonies and overtones|
|drum, bell, cymbals, xylophone.|
Measurement of velocity of sound in air or
(i) Vibration of air in pipe – open
frequency of tuning fork using the resonance tube.
and closed pipes
Use of the relationship v = in solving numerical
problems. End correction is expected to be
mentioned. Applications in wind instruments e.g.
organ, flute, trumpet, horn, clarinet and saxophone.
|23. Description property of fields.|
|(a) Concept of fields:|
|Gravitational, electric and|
|(b) Properties of a force field||Use of compass needle and iron filings to show|
|magnetic field lines.|
- Gravitational field
- Acceleration due to gravity, (g)G as gravitational field intensity should be mentioned, g = F/m.
- Gravitational force between two
Masses include protons, electrons and planets
Newton’s law of gravitation
Universal gravitational constant (G)
Relationship between ‘G’ and ‘g’
(c) Gravitational potential and escape velocity.
Calculation of the escape velocity of a rocket from the earth’s gravitational field.
- Electric Field
(a) Production of electric charges
Production by friction, induction and contact.
(b) Types of distribution of charges
A simple electroscope should be used to detect and compare charges on differently-shaped bodies.
(c) Storage of charges
Application in light conductors.
(d) Electric lines of force
Determination, properties and field patterns of charges.
- Electric force between point charges: Coulomb’s law
- Concepts of electric field, electric field intensity (potential gradient) and electric potential.
Definition, arrangement and application
- Current electricity
- Production of electric current from primary and secondary cells
- Potential difference and electric current
- Electric circuit
- Electric conduction through materials
- Electric energy and power
Permittivity of a medium.
Calculation of electric field intensity and electric potential of simple systems.
Factors affecting the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor. The farad (F) as unit of capacitance. Capacitors in series and in parallel.
Energy stored in a charged capacitor. Uses of capacitors: e.g. in radio and Television. (Derivation of formulae for capacitance is not required)
Simple cell and its defects. Daniel cell, Lechanché
cell (wet and dry).
Lead-acid accumulator. Alkalne-cadium cell.
E.m.f. of a cell, the volt (V) as unit of e.m.f.
Ohm’s law and resistance. Verification of Ohm’s law. The volt (V), ampere (A) and ohm (Ω) as units of p.d., current and reisistance respectively.
Series and parallel arrangement of cells and resistors. Lost volt and internal resistance of batteries.
Ohmic and non ohmic conductors. Examples of ohmic conductors are metals, non-ohmic conductors are semiconductors.
Quantitative definition of electrical energy and power. Heating effect of an electric current and its application. Conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy e.g. electric motors. Conversion of solar energy to electrical and heat energies: e.g. solar cells, solar heaters.
|(f)||Shunt and multiplier||Use in conversion of a galvanometer into an|
|ammeter and a voltmeter.|
|(g)||Resistivity and Conductivity||Factors affecting the electrical resistance of a|
|material should be treated. Simple problems may be|
|(h) Measurement of electric||Principle of operation and use of ammeter,|
|current, potential difference,||voltmeter, potentiometer. The wheatstone bridge|
|resistance, e.m.f. and internal||and metre bridge.|
|resistance of a cell.|
- Magnetic field
|(a) Properties of magnets and||Practical examples such as soft iron, steel and alloys.|
|(b) Magnetization and||Temporary and permanent magnets. Comparison of|
|demagnetization.||iron and steel as magnetic materials.|
|(c) Concept of magnetic field||Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density.|
|Magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a|
|current-carrying conductor and a solenoid.|
|Plotting of line of force to locate neutral points|
|Units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as|
|weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively.|
|(d) Magnetic force on:||Qualitative treatment only. Applications: electric|
|(i)||a current-carrying conductor||motor and moving-coil galvanometer.|
|placed in a magnetic field;|
|(ii)||between two parallel|
|current-carrying conductors||Examples in electric bell, telephone earpiece etc.|
|(e) Use of electromagnets|
|Mariner’s compass. Angles of dip and declination.|
|(f) The earth’s magnetic field|
|Solving simple problems involving the motion of a|
|(g) Magnetic force on a moving||charged particle in a magnetic field, using|
|charged particle||F=qvB sin|
|27. Electromagnetic field|
|Identifying the directions of current, magnetic field|
|(a) Concept of electromagnetic field||and force in an electromagnetic field (Fleming’s left-|
- Shunt and multiplier
- Resistivity and Conductivity
- Measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance, e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell.
- Magnetic field
- Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.
- Magnetization and demagnetization.
- Concept of magnetic field
- Magnetic force on:
- a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field;
- between two parallel current-carrying conductors
- Use of electromagnets
- The earth’s magnetic field
- Magnetic force on a moving charged particle
- Electromagnetic field
- Concept of electromagnetic field
Use in conversion of a galvanometer into an ammeter and a voltmeter.
Factors affecting the electrical resistance of a material should be treated. Simple problems may be set.
Principle of operation and use of ammeter, voltmeter, potentiometer. The wheatstone bridge and metre bridge.
Practical examples such as soft iron, steel and alloys.
Temporary and permanent magnets. Comparison of iron and steel as magnetic materials.
Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density. Magnetic field around a permanent magnet, a current-carrying conductor and a solenoid. Plotting of line of force to locate neutral points Units of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density as weber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively.
Qualitative treatment only. Applications: electric motor and moving-coil galvanometer.
Examples in electric bell, telephone earpiece etc.
Mariner’s compass. Angles of dip and declination.
Solving simple problems involving the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field, using F=qvB sin
Identifying the directions of current, magnetic field and force in an electromagnetic field (Fleming’s left-hand rule).
(b) Electromagnetic induction
Faraday’s law ,Lenz’s law and motor-generator effect
- Eddy currents
- Power transmission and distribution
- Simple a.c. circuits
- Graphical representation of e.m.f and current in an a.c. circult.
- Peak and r..m.s. values
Applications: Generator (d.c.and a.c.) induction coil and transformer. The principles underlying the production of direct and alternating currents should be treated. Equation E = Eo sinwt should be explained.
Qualitative explanation of self and mutual inductance. The unit of inductance is henry (H).
(E = LI2)
Application in radio,T.V., transformer.
(Derivation of formula is not required).
A method of reducing eddy current losses should be treated. Applications in induction furnace, speedometer, etc.
Reduction of power losses in high-tension transmission lines. Household wiring system should be discussed.
Graphs of equation I – Io sin wt and\E = Eo sinwt should be treated.
Phase relationship between voltage and current in the circuit elements; resistor, inductor and capacitor.
|(c)||Series circuit containing||Simple calculations involving a.c. circuit.|
|resistor, inductor and capacitor||(Derivation of formulae is not required.)|
|(d)||Reactance and impedance||XL and Xc should be treated. Simple numerical|
|problems may be set.|
|(f) Resonance in an a.c, circuit||Applications in tuning of radio and T.V. should be|
|(g) Power in an a.c. circuit.|
|ATOMIC AND NUCELAR PHYSICS|
|29. Structure of the atom||Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and electron-|
|cloud (wave-mechanical) models should be|
|(a) Models of the atom||discussed qualitatively. Limitations of each|
|model. Quantization of angular momentum|
|Energy levels in the atom. Colour and light|
|frequency. Treatment should include the|
|(b) Energy quantization||following: Frank-Hertz experiment, Line|
|spectra from hot bodies, absorption spectra|
|and spectra of discharge lamps.|
|Explanation of photoelectric effect. Dual|
|nature of light. Work function and threshold|
|(c) Photoelectric effect||frequency. Einstein’s photoelectric equation|
|and its explanation. Application in T.V.,|
|Simple problems may be set.|
|(d) Thermionic emission||Explanation and applications.|
|(e) X-rays||Production of X-rays and structure of X-ray|
|Types, characteristics, properties, uses and|
|30. Structure of the nucleus||hazards of X-rays. Safety precautions|
|(a) Composition of the nucleus||Protons and neutrons. Nucleon number (A),|
|proton number (Z), neutron number (N) and|
|the equation: A-Z + N to be treated.|
|Nuclides and their notation. Isotopes.|
|(a)||Radioactivity –||Radioactive elements, radioactive emissions|
|Natural and artificial||(,β, )and their properties and uses.|
|Detection of radiations by G – M counter,|
|photographic plates, etc. should be|
|mentioned. Radioactive decay, half-life and|
|Transformation of elements. Applications of|
|radioactivity in agriculture, medicine,|
|industry, archaeology, etc.|
|(b)||Nuclear reactions —||Distinction between fusion and fission.|
|Fusion and Fission||Binding energy, mass defect and energy|
|E= ∆ mc2|
|Nuclear reactors. Atomic bomb. Radiation|
|hazards and safety precautions. Peaceful|
|uses of nuclear reactions.|
|31. Wave-particle paradox|
|(a)||Electron diffraction||Simple illustration of the dual nature of|
|(b)||Duality of matter||light.|
HARMONISED TOPICS FOR SHORT STRUCTURED QUESTIONS FOR ALL MEMBER COUNTRIES
|1. Derived quantities and dimensional||Fundamental quantities and units e.g. Length, mass,|
|Analysis||time, electric current, luminous intensity e.t.c., m,|
|kg,s, A, cd, e.t.c. as their respective units|
|Derived quantities and units. e.g. volume, density,|
|speed e.t.c. m3, kgm-3, ms-1 e.t.c. as their respective|
|Explanation of dimensions in terms of fundamental|
|and derived quantities. Uses of dimensions|
|– to verity dimensional correctness of a given|
|– to derive the relationship between quantities|
|– to obtain derived units.|
|2. Projectile motion concept of||Applications of projectiles in warfare, sports etc.|
|projectiles as an object thrown/release||Simple problems involving range, maximum height|
|into space||and time of flight may be set.|
|3.||Satellites and rockets||Meaning of a satellite comparison of natural and|
|artificial satellites parking orbits, Geostationary|
|satellites and period of revolution and speed of a|
|Uses of satellites and rockets|
|4. Elastic Properties of solid:||Behaviour of elastic materials under stress – features|
|Hooke’s law, Young’s modules and||of load – extension graph|
|work done in springs and string||Simple calculations on Hook’s law and Young’s|
|Thermal conductivity:||Solar energy; solar panel for heat energy supply.|
|Solar energy collector and Black body||Explanation of a blackbody. Variation of intensity|
|Radiation.||of black body radiation with wavelength at different|
|5.||Fibre Optics||Explanation of concept of fibre optics.|
|Principle of transmission of light through an optical|
|Applications of fibre optics e.g. local area Networks|
|(LAN) medicine, rensing devices, carrying laser|
|6. Introduction to LASER||Meaning of LASER|
|Types of LASERS|
|(Solid state, gas, liquid and semi-conductor|
|Application of LASERS|
|(in Scientific research, communication, medicine|
|military technology, Holograms e.t.c.|
|Dangers involved in using LASERS.|
|7. Magnetic materials||Uses of magnets and ferromagnetic materials.|
|8.||Electrical Conduction through||Distinction between conductors, semiconductors and|
|materials [Electronic]||insulators in term of band theory.|
|Semi conductor materials (silicon and germanium)|
|Meaning of intrinsic semiconductors. (Example of|
|materials silicon and germanium). Charge carriers|
|Doping production of p-type and n-type extrinsic|
|Junction diode – forward and reverse biasing,|
|voltage characteristics. Uses of diodes Half and full|
|9.||Structure of matter||Use of kinetic theory to explain diffusion.|
|10.||Wave – particle paradox||Electron diffraction|
|Duality of matter|
|Simple illustrations of dual nature of light.|