Agricultural Science JSSCE Exam Lessons

Classification of crops (based on uses)

              (a) Food and Feed  crops  (b) Industrial crops: Oil, Spices, Latex, Beverages, Fibre ,etc


                 (i)  Classification of crops based on food and feed crops

                (ii)  Classification of crops based on industrial crops.

Sub-Topic 1:  Food and Feed Crops.

These are crops used as food for man and his livestock. Some of these crops are sources of essential nutrients, e.g carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, etc . FOOD  and  FEED crops are grouped as follow :

CEREAL CROPS: These crops belong to the grass family called Gramineae. They are grown for their seeds or grains and are rich in carbohydrates.

 Examples are  Rice, Millet, Rye, Maize, Sorghum (Guinea corn), wheat, Barley, Oats etc.

GRAIN LEGUMES (PULSES): The legumes or peas belongs to the family called LEGUMINOSEAE. They  supply  proteins in the food . Legumes have some bacteria in their roots’ nodules that fix nitrogen into the soil .

 Examples are Cowpea, Soya-beans, Groundnuts, Pigeon-peas, lima beans, Clover, etc.

VEGETABLE CROPS: These are crops grown for their leaves and fruits. They are usually eaten fresh and green or boiled. They supply proteins, vitamins , minerals and also serve as roughage.

 Examples are Okra, Tomatoes, pumpkin ( Ugu) Water-leaf, Lettuce, Cabbage, Cucumber, Onion, Bitter-leaf, Amaranthus, etc .

ROOT AND TUBER CROPS: These are crops that store food  in underground stems or roots. They are major source of carbohydrates.

Examples are Cocoyam, Cassava, Sweet potato, Yam and Irish-potato.

Fruit crops: They grown mainly because of their fruits which supply vitamins and sugar to the body.

Examples include mango, quava, orange, pineapple, pawpaw, banana, cashew etc

Sugar crops: These are crops that supply sugar to the body. Example is Sugar cane

Beverage crops: They are crops that are grown for beverage drinks( e.g. bourvita, tea, coffee) . Examples are cocoa, coffee and tea.

Oil crops: They are crops that are grown for vegetable oil used for cooking, making pomade, candle, margarine.

 Examples are oil palm, groundnut, coconut, melon, cheese butter

Spices: These are crops that are used to flavor food. Examples are ginger, onion, pepper , thyme, curry, locust beans

FORAGE CROPS: These are grasses and legumes grown mainly for feeding farm animals. They are otherwise called feed crops.

Examples of forage crops are Elephant grass, Guinea grass, Centrosema, Gamba grass, Pueraria, Stylosanthes  gracilis.


1.   Highlight four food and feed crops with two examples for each.

2.   Name five forage crops.

Sub-Topic 2: Industrial crops

Industrial crops are used in the manufacture of various useful items . These include

FIBRE CROPS: These are crops grown specifically for their fibres. Fibres are used for making clothes, Carpets, Sacks, Ropes, Twines and Papers. They may be produced from Fruits or Seeds , Stems or Leaves. Examples are Cotton, Jute,  Kenaf, Hemp, Sisal, Raffia, etc.

NUT CROPS: They grown mainly for their oil. Examples are cashew, coconut , groundnut

LATEX CROPS: These are crops whose stems or fruits produce Sap(fluid) which may be used as gum or coagulated to form rubber.

 Examples are Gum Arabia ,Para-Rubber(Hevea  brasiliensis), Indian- Rubber(Ficus  elastic).

DRUG CROPS AND STIMILANTS: These are medicinal plants which contain chemical substances that produce an action in the human body. Examples are Tobacco, Cocaine, Quinine, Eucalyptus, Neem tree,  Indian hemp or Marijuana Dongoyaro  etc.  Examples of stimulants are Kola, Lime,  The active material is usually present in their Roots, Seeds, Leaves, Barks, Woods, etc.

ORNAMENTAL CROPS: These are crops grown for the purpose of making our environment beautiful. They include Flowers, House Plants, Hedge Shrubs and Lawn grasses. Examples are Roses, Sunflower, Pride of Barbados, Acacia, Ixora, Hibiscus, Marigold, Lily, and some water plants.


1.   What are industrial crops?

2.   List four industrial crops with three examples for each

PRE-READING ASSIGNMENT: Read  about the ecological distribution of crops and factors affecting distribution of crops in Nigeria.


Junior secondary Agriculture (workbook 1)byAnthony.Youdeowei et-al pages 19-21


1.   Junior Secondary  Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei  et al

2.   Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E . U Okaro

3.   Essentials Of Agricultural Science For JSS And Colleges By Earnest Chukwudi