Agricultural Science JSSCE Notes

Ecological Distribution Of Crops In Nigeria

Distribution of crops refers to region where each particular crop is mostly adapted in Nigeria. Successful adaptation of crop to the climatic and soil condition of an area is known as Adaptability. Different crops require different climatic and soil conditions for their normal growth and development.


Coastal Region of Nigeria is  where the mangrove forest occurs, paddy rice and rubber can profitably be grown.

Rain Forest region of the South, the crops adapted to the environment are mostly oil-palm, cocoa, banana, kola-nuts, rubber, tuber crops and root crops of various types.

Savanna Region areas of the North, the crops grown are mainly cereals and legumes because they do not require high rainfall.


1.   What are the requirements of all crops?

2.   State reasons why rubber and cocoa cannot be grown in Northern parts of Nigeria

Sub-Topic 2: Factors Affecting Distribution Of Crops In Nigeria:

A . Climate: The climatic factors that determine where a particular crop is found are

i.    Rainfall

ii.   Temperature

iii.  Relative Humidity

iv.  Sunshine

RAINFALL: Crops depend mainly on rainfall for their water supply. Although this water can be got from underground and by irrigation. Water requirements of crops vary from crop to crop. E.g. Banana requires much water , it is grown in the South. While Millet or Sorghum requires low water and it is grown in the North.

TEMPERATURE: There is a temperature range within which a crop can attain it maximum yield. They have minimum or maximum temperature, therefore those crops that can survive  high temperature are majorly grown in the northern parts while those that thrive under low temperature  are grown majorly in the southern parts.          

RELATIVE HUMIDITY: Some crops require very cool temperature , e.g. Irish Potato which is grown in cool Northern areas like Jos.

SUNSHINE: Sunshine is very necessary for the growth of all crops. It is an essential element in the photosynthetic  activity  of the plants . Some crops like cereals require long hours of sunshine while others like cocoyam require shorter  hours to produce well.

B. SOIL FACTOR(SOIL CONDITIONS) : Soils vary in physical as well as chemical properties. Some crops require sandy to loamy soils, e.g. Groundnuts while some require clay soil, e.g. Swamp Rice.

Soils also vary in pH levels and some crops do well in soils of low pH level others require high pH.

C. HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON LAND: Man has also influenced crops distribution by supplying water through irrigation and damming, therefore making production of crops that require a lot of water possible in drier areas . Fertilizers have been applied to poor soils to improve their fertility , while organic manures has been applied to clay soils to improve water retention


1.   Outline four climatic factors affecting the distribution of crops in Nigeria.

Which regions in Nigeria can these crops be grown? Rubber, Millet, Kola-nut, Oil-palm, Sorghum.

1.   In what ways has man influenced crops distribution ?

Pre-Reading Assignment: Read about forms of farm animals .

Student Activity: Draw the map of Nigeria showing distribution of crops.



1.   Junior Secondary  Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei  et al

2.   Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E . U Okaro      

3.   Essentials Of Agricultural Science For JSS And Colleges By Earnest Chukwudi

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